Biblical and Secular Chronology

The two papers below are on the subject of chronology. This area of biblical apologetics is important because skeptics attack the reliability of the Bible when they determine that the secular dates and the biblical dates disagree. It is not understood that the biblical and secular chronologies start to diverge before 600 BC, and differ considerably as we go back in ancient times. Bible believers, who do not doubt the veracity of the biblical timeline, often do not realize that they are mixing together biblical and secular dates, with resulting confusion.

Revising the Egyptian Chronology: Joseph as Imhotep, and Amenemhat IV as the Pharaoh of the Exodus


The necessity of revising the the standard secular chronology of Egypt is widely accepted, but efforts to achieve this so far have been inadequate. By recognizing Joseph of the Bible as the famous Imhotep of Egyptian history, and 12th-Dynasty Amenemhat IV as the pharaoh of the Exodus, a drastic shortening and rearranging of the 3rd to 12th Dynasties is indicated, making the chronology of Egypt accord with that of the Bible.



Ancient Egypt, the Ice Age, and Biblical Chronology


The history, archaeology, geography, and geology of ancient Egypt are examined with respect to the post-Flood Ice Age. It is shown that the Ice Age must have ended before the formation of the Nile Delta, and therefore well before the beginnings of Egyptian civilization and Abraham's visit to Egypt. It is shown that more time for events between the Flood and Abraham is needed than the Masoretic timeline allows; the longer chronology of the Septuagint is therefore most likely correct.


The two papers above were presented by the author at the Seventh International Conference on creationism (ICC2013) in Pittsburgh, PA, August 2013. Permission to post these papers has been granted by the Creation Science Fellowship, Inc., who own the rights to the conference papers. The ICC web site is at